What Happened to Chris Cave?

What Happened to Chris Cave? The first time I remember Chris Cave (I did not know his last name then) calling into the radio program was at least 4 years ago when the program was on another network. Chris’ knowledge of law and background in linguistics and the origins of words has always been impressive to me. Chris has continued to be a regular caller and contributor to the show for years now.

Chris Cave is in Sparks NV

Several months ago Chris was ‘set up’ by the Clark County, Nevada. He called into the program numerous times from the day of the incident on, giving us a ‘blow by blow’ account of the events. As the theft of his antique car, literally from his property, by (according to Chris) 11 heavily armed Clark County police officers.

Chris has a professional background and after he thwarted their attempts the ‘authorities’ pulled some of their usual tactics. Evidently one of the heads of the County Commission had his daughter ‘designated’ as Chris Cave’s ‘guardian’ and used that to fraud to place Chris in a ‘high security mental institution’ in Sparks, Nevada. Chris is currently being held, against his will, in this ‘institution’.

Chris & a fellow inmate were on the Radio Ranch two weeks ago for almost 2 full hours. The blow-back from that appearance has resulted now in a facility rule that Chris is NOT ALLOWED to use the phone. Previous to that decision Chris could ‘only’ talk on the phone with his “forensic correction officer” standing by him while he speaks on the phone.

We have set up a position for Chris so that when he IS released from being held against his will and under total fraud & color of law he will hopefully have something that he can use to possibly better his position and get his life back in some sort of order.

We will update as we know more.

Posted by Roger Sayles in Government, 3 comments

The United States is Running Parallel Governments

By Roger Sayles | Sovereign to Serf

The United States is Running Parallel Governments

The Gadsden flag; Don't Tread on Me. Image credit: Lexicon, Vikrum (Own work) [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

The United States is running parallel governments. For 23.5 years I have been studying the basics of law and the methods and techniques that the New World Order has so skillfully used to enslave the once freest people on the face of the earth. Few people really understand the uniqueness of the form of government our Forefathers founded and left us. Obviously, it has been totally corrupted and changed. 'How' the exact method that has been used was laid out exactly in my book, From Sovereign to Serf, Government by the Treachery and Deception of Words. However, some people, even truly wanting to understand still have a problem understanding the really relative simple trick that has been played.

The explanation was greatly simplified, demonstrated and shown in actual application for a U.S. Passport in the video posted at A U.S. Passport for Ed Snowden. In the middle of that video is what must be the greatest open hidden secret in the history of the world, The Holy Grail, the 'the pyramid w/the all seeing eye', a Babylonian conceptual trap! Viewing the video plainly shows you the two distinct types of 'political status', or 'citizenship' (if you want to use a term where their double definition dialectal word trick can potentially confuse and trick your mind). One can easily look into The Declaration of Independence and see the words that are capitalized, “Citizen” being one of them along with “Rights” and “Duties.” I've tried to establish the phrase 'political status' as opposed to 'citizenship' for clarification purposes. The object of 'all' of this specificity is to assist people in “fine tuning” their thinking. “Muddy thinking”, not being specific, allows them to play opposite-definition word tricks. They get us thinking in 'generalities' and then come back and zap us with 'specificity'. This is the technique that has been used so effectively by the Satanists that has brought the world so very close to the literal brink of destruction where we now find ourselves no matter where we are located on the globe.

For all the years I've come to understand these complex concepts I have continually attempted to apply my growing familiarity in methods to show or explain what has been done in simpler ways so that more people can quickly 'uptake' their understanding. The reason is because when people find out they've been living in a world of opposite definitions they have to go back and 'think through' each situation where they have established a “reality theory” view of their personal and worldview situations. Untying all of these “double minded” knots in one's life takes time, concentration and effort.

Lately I have come to understand something I had actually noticed and identified numerous years ago. But, in this 'untie the knots' approach to understanding our jilted world now spinning out of control one can 'see' something, even 'know' some fact and still not know how it fits into the puzzle. What they have done is definitely complex and meant to deceive, trick and induce you into giving them the “Consent of the Governed” all the while not understanding what you are doing or agreeing to.

Oh, you didn't know they have 'the “Consent of the Governed”? Oh yes, you've given that to them many times over your lifetime! When you have been asked “are you a resident?” or “are you a citizen of the United States?” maybe even “are you a U.S. Person?” they were, in complex legally coded language asking you “are you a voluntary serf under the scope and purview of the 14th Amendment?”. You answered 'yes' and signed some type of legal document! As the legal cannon goes, “Ignorance of the law is 'no' excuse!” Hell, you 'should' know 'what you ARE', shouldn't you? YOU should know whether you're 'slave or free', 'free or bond' now, 'shouldn't you'? To get Biblical here, “my people die from lack of knowledge."

Let's go back to a 'basic' premise, back in time over 2,000 years. One of the truly greatest true statesman in the history of the world was Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106-43 B.C. Note the dates that he lived. Try to comprehend the importance of this quote written before the birth and death of Jesus Christ.

Power and law are not synonymous. In truth, they are frequently in opposition and irreconcilable. There is God‘s Law from which all equitable laws of man emerge and by which men must live if they are not to die in oppression, chaos and despair. Divorced from God‘s eternal and immutable Law, established before the founding of the suns, man‘s power is evil no matter the noble words with which it is employed or the motives urged when enforcing it. Men of good will, mindful therefore of the Law laid down by God, will oppose governments whose rule is by men, and if they wish to survive as a nation they will destroy the government which attempts to adjudicate by the whim of venal judges.

~ Marcus Tullius Cicero 106-43 B.C.

There are 'two' and “ONLY TWO” places men get their 'Rights' or 'rights'. The capital “R” Rights are the Natural God-Given Rights (with correlative Duties) as spelled out in The Declaration of Independence. The lower case “r” rights we today call 'civil rights' as installed and dictated by the 14th Amendment. Small 'r' rights are nothing more than 'privileges', privileges can be 'given' as well as 'taken away' and, even more importantly they can be, here's the key word, “regulated”! Hence the growth of “Administrative” or “Regulatory” Agencies, to “administrate” or “regulate” the new 'voluntary serfs' put into that condition with the Bankruptcy of the United States on March 9, 1933. From the Congressional Record. Congressman Louis T. McFadden, one of America‘s greatest Representatives. Thursday, May 4, 1933. (From Sovereign to Serf Government by the Treachery and Deception of Words)

Mr. McFadden. Mr. Chairman, the United States is bankrupt. It has been bankrupted by the corrupt and dishonest Federal Reserve banks. It has repudiated its debt to its own citizens. Its chief foreign creditor is Great Britain, and a British bailiff has been at the White House and British agents are in the United States Treasury making inventories and arranging terms of liquidation. In close cooperation with the British bailiff a French bailiff has been standing by with a staff of experts and 25 of the leading French journalists. The ?united front‘ has arrived at Washington.

Put into bondage that day in this banker manipulated 'bankruptcy' were 'all' the people in America at the time. This was done under the legal concepts of the 13th and 14th Amendment. Let's examine and dissect these two Constitutional Amendments.

It amazes me that the answers have been right there in front of all of our faces for 'all' these years. However, until you understand the basic premise of what is/has happening/happened you simply cannot fathom the depth of the trickery, treachery and deceit. Let's dissect the 13th Amendment.

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Note the first highlighted phrase “involuntary servitude”. Note that the term also is equally qualified with the preceding key word, 'slavery'. In law there is another concept termed 'legal by omission'. What the 13th does NOT make 'illegal' is “Voluntary Servitude” because it is 'not' expressly prohibited! Put in the dialectical form, “Voluntary Servitude” was made 'legal' by the 13th Amendment.

Now, secondly and equally if not 'more' important is the next key, highlighted, word. That word is “their”! “Their” is obviously referring to “PLURAL” or, the original states jurisdiction! So, these 'illegalities' and 'legalities' of the 13th Amendment apply to the states of the Union at the time of the Amendment's passing. This, again, capitalized here for emphasis, “PLURAL” denotation is highly important to not only 'note' but also 'understand'.

Now that we know “Voluntary Servitude” is 'legal by omission' in the existing 'states' let's move to the 14th Amendment's 1st sentence or clause.

Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.

I am already planning on writing another, follow up article on SIX 'legal landmines' in the above sentence. For this article and our analysis here we'll concentrate on the highlighted text, the middle 'guts' of this dastardly addition to our National Constitution. You see, it has become vividly apparent to me, especially as of late, the more I understand the true dialectical nature of our traditional enemy, their plans and more importantly their methods of advancing their slavery agenda. It takes planning, stealth and years of scheming and conditioning of the people's minds to accomplish their goals! These amendments as well as a horrible 'Civil War' or, as, being a Southern boy I prefer to call it, “The War of Northern Aggression,” were ALL part of the more than 150 year old plan we live in now, unfolding to its predicted and intended results now in our collective lifetimes.

I don't think it takes much of an English language scholar to see the above center part of the 14th Amendment is framed in the 'singular'. “the jurisdiction thereof” is solo, one as diametrically opposed to the previous “their”, plural jurisdiction. Here you see the stark reality, right there in the U.S. Constitution the plain evidence that we have 'parallel governments'! The first the original composite of the original and added 'states', each considered a separate country. The second the post “War of Northern Aggression” singular 'federal government' now all powerful!

Now, let's reexamine the “Oath” on the current Application for U.S. Passport as examined in depth in From Sovereign to Serf Government by the Treachery and Deception of Words as well as the “A U.S. Passport for Ed Snowden” video on this website. Here you will see the two separate and distinct political statuses set forth plainly in the 13th & 14th Amendments to the Constitution discussed at length above."

“I declare under penalty of perjury that I am a United States citizen (or non- citizen national) and have not, since acquiring United States citizenship (or U.S. nationality), performed any of the acts listed under “Acts or Conditions” on the reverse of this application form (unless explanatory statement is attached). I declare under penalty of perjury that the statements made on this application are true and correct.”

They are 'to this day' running 'parallel governments'! The 'original' government, with God-Given Rights and Constitutional protections is still there, it still is operable and it still operates! The second, the federal government, with its 'regulatory/administrative agencies' to 'regulate/administrate' the post March 9, 1933 'voluntary serfs' or, even more correctly, 'federal property' has become predominant. It controls the entire country, it's business and it's 'property'. That, of course, would be YOU!

Changing this is, at least in action, a very simple and easy exercise. File, according to the U.S. Passport application, a 'declaration, including Affidavits' with the United States Secretary of State. That office is the highest office in the federal government with 'all' final authority on ALL matters concerning 'citizenship', therefore 'political status'.

To learn more details you can listen to our weekday radio program aired 12-2 CDT on the fabulous facility

Posted by Roger Sayles in Articles, Government, 2 comments

KaratBars Will Free You from the New World Order

KaratBars Will Free You from the New World OrderHello, my name is Roger Sayles. Several years ago, I authored From Sovereign to Serf: Government by the Treachery and Deception of Words, a book in which I exposed what has been done by those in power to bring the great American Dream to its knees. Copies of the book and the 27 minute video I did for Ed Snowden (concerning Ed’s U.S. Passport) can be found at A US Passport For Ed Snowden.

My 23 years of political research were done hand-in-hand with my in-depth study of the history of our present financial system. Early on in my studies, I came to understand the importance of GOLD and precious metals in our lives, our families’ futures and in their well-being. I also noted the importance of GOLD in the scheme used by the New World Order (NWO) to dominate, control and enslave all the peoples of the world. In late April 2014, a good friend of many years called and asked if I’d ever heard of Karatbars, a German company which had been selling monetary-grade GOLD throughout the world for five years. I had not. He sent some information, and it grabbed my attention immediately, NOT primarily because of the financial or monetary gain available, but because of the power behind the concept on which this company was created and on which it operates today. Karatbars sells ‘gold-by-the gram.’ It offers 1, 2.5 & 5 grams ‘cards’ with monetary-grade GOLD actually embedded ‘in’ the card. You can find a great deal of additional information on the company and its unique concept HERE.

Several aspects of this endeavor ‘really’ excited me:

  • After looking into the company, I quickly realized that for the very first time, to my knowledge, we had a way to collectively fight our traditional enemy, the NWO, by attacking the ‘Tap Root’ of its power – the paper financial system.  The control of the financial system by the leaders of the NWO has allowed them to gain the political control to which we are all subjected.  The results are obvious to all who dare to open their eyes.
  • Every time rapidly-depreciating paper currency is exchanged for grams of gold, our traditional enemy is weakened.  Karatbars takes the currency, exchanges it for gold, then ‘dumps the paper back’ on the rapidly-depreciating pile of paper currencies, weakening them even more! THAT single act gives us financial power, collectively, working as a team, to weaken and, eventually, to topple the NWO.
  • Secondly, I realized, after 23 years of ‘tough sledding’ trying to find people who were even interested in the political findings put forth in my book, that Karatbars offered an easier way to get the message of my book to a much bigger audience!  You see, because everyone is concerned about their pocketbook, there will be many, MANY people who will be getting actively involved in Karatbars in the coming weeks, months and years.
  • Now, they can much more easily be exposed to the political shenanigans that have been pulled on the American people!  So, the success of Karatbars will enable us to spread the political facts and truth contained in From Sovereign to Serf FAR more easily and widely than before.  Ultimately, my research will reach many more people who have been prepared for the message because their study of the concepts behind Karatbars will now enable them to be more aware of the financial shenanigans which have been put over on them!
  • I immediately recognized that this small, relatively unknown German GOLD company could really help further my 23-year ‘mission’ of attempting to show and prove to Americans ‘exactly’ what has been done to them.

What I call “The Big Picture” of Karatbars is this: PRIVACY!  What Karatbars really offers us is an opportunity for privacy in our financial affairs.  You see, once you’re involved, you literally have your own PRIVATE banking system!  Yes, you can move funds in your free eWallet to any other Karatbar Member in the world with complete PRIVACY!   Once you’ve earned 35 euros in commissions, Karatbars will issue you an International Debit Card (by Master Card) into which your future commissions will be paid.  When you use the card, NO BANK sees your purchases!  Your transactions are completely PRIVATE!  Think of it: a worldwide GOLD exchange with complete PRIVACY!

A Private Vault Filled with GOLD

In addition, Karatbars offers an exceptional, but optional, opportunity for personal financial independence for those who share Karatbars vision of the future.  How much you want to earn is totally in your control!  The company pays up to 85% of its profits to those willing to help spread its vision to the world. Currently, in 122 countries around the world, there are only approximately 155,000 Karatbar Affiliates!  With literally billions of people eligible to become involved, the present number of Affiliates is but an ultra-small percentage of those who will be enrolling to help spread the “Karatbar vision” over the coming weeks, months and years.  How many of those potential billions of people would you like on your team?

Learn, Do, Share

If you will devote the time and energy required to absorb the information presented here in written and video form, I can assure you that you will LEARN in a relatively short amount of time what took me almost 23 years to absorb over countless hours and at great expense. If, after absorbing this material, you then think that this is something that makes sense for you to DO, please leave your name and contact information in the form below. We will contact you, send you more information if needed and/or answer any questions you may have. I urge you in the strongest of terms to seriously look into this fantastic opportunity.  In my honest opinion, opportunities like this only cross a person’s path once, maybe twice if you’re ‘lucky’, in a lifetime…

Karatbars gives you an opportunity to LEARN what the NWO is doing, DO something about it, SHARE the Karatbars Vision, REGAIN your freedom from the tyranny of the NWO!

Karatbars, changing the World’s marketplace, 1 gram @ time………

Roger Sayles

LEARN 140 Years Of Monetary History In 10 Minutes – Mike Maloney

How Much Will Your Retirement Account be Worth when You Need it?

 Has your time to be free arrived?

If so, click to send us your contact info and we will show you the way!

Posted by Roger Sayles in Gold, Karatbars, 32 comments

Birth Certificates; You’re Pledged by the Federal Government as Collateral

Birth Certificates; You're Pledged by the Federal Government as Collateral

Seriously, What’s With All The “You Are a Slave” Stuff?

We have gone from freedom to slavery, from sovereigns to serfs on the great Federal Manor via the 14th Amendment. All due in large measure to the treachery and deception of words by the United States Supreme Court.

Roger S. Sayles, p. 161From Sovereign to Serf

If you have wondered why all of your “patriot friends” continually warn you about being a slave, but were afraid to ask — this post is for you. And while you old-timers won’t learn anything new from reading this article, you’ll appreciate the simplicity and clarity of the author’s explanation.

You Don’t Own Yourself — the Federal Reserve Does

For a while I have been receiving e-mails from a good friend who has asked me to investigate something weird about the Birth Certificates. He wanted me to take a look at them because they have certain numbers and other things printed on them that need an explanation.

When I looked at my own Birth Certificate, I noticed it was a copy of the original. So I went through old boxes and baby books that my Mom had saved before she died and found what I was looking for — my original Birth Certificate. It was brittle and yellowed with decades of age but — wow — it was NOT the original!

What I have learned since is kind of like discovering that you are part of the Matrix. It seems none of us have our original Birth Certificates — they are all copies. And the copies have a serial number on them, issued on special Bank Bond paper and authorized by “The American Bank Note Company.” Huh?

The truth is stranger than fiction. But here it is:

It seems that back in 1913 the United States was short of cash. World War I had depleted the treasury and there were several really bad financial panics — in 1907 especially — so the country needed to print more money than it had as equity to restore confidence in the money supply and get the economy back on its feet.

collateral-rooseveltWhen you or I need more money, we use something as collateral and go to a bank for a loan. When a country needs more money it has to go somewhere also. But in 1913 there wasn’t anywhere to go. So the US created the Federal Reserve Act. This established a private central bank (The Federal Reserve Bank) that would regulate the amount of money the US government was allowed to borrow and put in circulation. It also would expect to be repaid, like any bank, with interest.

After only 20 years things went from bad to worse. During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency, in 1933, the US was unable to pay its debt. The county was bankrupt. The private banks that made up the Federal Reserve demanded their money and Roosevelt responded. He had to use the only thing left of any value to pay the banks and continue doing business with them — the citizens of our country. Us!

Exactly how all this was orchestrated is too lengthy to be addressed here, but this much can be told. The original birth or naturalization record for every U.S. Citizen is on file in the official records in Washington, D.C. (you get to keep a copy!) and the property and assets of every living U.S. Citizen is pledged as collateral for the National Debt!

Within two weeks and three days each Certificate of Live Birth is to be filed in Washington D.C. Evidence reveals that there is even a Federal Children Department established by the Shepherd/Townsend Act of 1922 under the Department of Commerce that appears to be involved in this process in some way. Every citizen is given a number (the red number on the Birth Certificate) and each live birth is valued at from 650,000 to 750,000 Federal Reserve dollars in collateral from the Fed.

This kind of makes you feel a little different when you look at Federal Reserve Chairman, Bernanke, doesn’t it?

OK. Let’s take a pause to look at the Birth Certificates [below.] You will see the red numbers and you will see the fact that it is, in reality, a “Bank Note.” Congratulations — you and I are commodities!


Names in “ALL CAPS” on Birth Certificates

Since the early 1960s, State governments have issued Birth Certificates to “persons” with legal fictional names using “ALL CAPS” names. This is not a lawful record of your physical birth, but rather the acknowledgement of the “birth” of the juristic, all-caps name. It may appear to be your true name, but since no proper name is ever written in all caps (either lawfully or grammatically) it does not identify who you are. The Birth Certificate is the government’s self-created document of title for its new property — you and me! In a way, it makes us a kind of corporation whose company name is the same as our real name, but written in ALL CAPS. This “corporation” then generates taxes and wealth over its lifetime and in this way repays the collateral that Uncle Sam borrowed from the Federal Reserve.

Remember that “Bond” thing printed on the bottom of the certificate?

Bond. I a: A usually formal written agreement by which a person undertakes to perform a certain act (as fulfill the obligations of a contract) . . with the condition that failure to perform or abstain will obligate the person . . to pay a sum of money or will result in the forfeiture of money put up by the person or surety. lb: One who acts as a surety. 2: An interest-bearing document giving evidence of a debt issued by a government body or corporation that is sometimes secured by a lien on property and is often designed to take care of a particular financial need. — Ibid. — Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Law (1996).

Banknote. A kind of negotiable instrument, a promissory note made by a bank payable to the bearer on demand, used as money, and in many jurisdictions is legal tender. Along with coins, banknotes make up the cash or bearer forms of all modern money.

Birth certificates are a form of securities called “warehouse receipts.” The items included on a warehouse receipt, as described at §7-202 of the Uniform Commercial Code, the law which governs commercial paper and transactions, which parallel a birth certificate are:

  • the location of the warehouse where the goods are stored…(residence)
  • the date of issue of the receipt…..(“Date issued”)
  • the consecutive number of the receipt…(found on back or front of the certificate, usually in red numbers)
  • a description of the goods or of the packages containing them…(name, sex, date of birth, etc.)
  • the signature of the warehouseman, which may be made by his authorized agent…(municipal clerk or state registrar’s signature)

Birth certificates now appear to at least qualify as “warehouse receipts” under the Uniform Commercial Code. Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th ed. defines:

Warehouse Receipt. …A warehouse receipt, which is considered a document of title, may be a negotiable instrument and is often used for financing with inventory as security.

It is not difficult to see that a state-created Birth Certificate, with an ALL CAPS name is a document evidencing debt the moment it is issued.

Once a state has registered a birth document with the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Department notifies the Treasury Department, which takes out a loan from the Federal Reserve. The Treasury uses the loan to purchase a bond (the Fed holds a purchase money security interest in the bond) from the Department of Commerce, which invests the sale proceeds in the stock or bond market. The Treasury Department then issues Treasury securities in the form of Treasury Bonds, Notes, and Bills using the bonds as surety for the new securities.

This cycle is based on the future tax revenues of the legal person whose name appears on the Birth Certificate. This also means that the bankrupt, corporate U.S. can guarantee to the purchasers of their securities the lifetime labor and tax revenues of every citizen of the United States/American with a Birth Certificate as collateral for payment. This device is initiated simply by converting the lawful, true name of the child into a legal, juristic name of a person.

Legally, you are considered to be a slave or indentured servant to the various Federal, State and local governments via your STATE-issued and STATE-created Birth Certificate in the name of your all-caps person. Birth Certificates are issued so that the issuer can claim exclusive title to the legal person created thereby.

Sleep well, fellow slaves.


Posted by Roger Sayles in Articles, Birth Certificates, 4 comments

A US Passport For Ed Snowden

A US Passport For Ed Snowden

Biometric United States passport issued in 2007 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The United States Government has revoked the U.S. Passport previously issued to Edward Joseph Snowden.

Is that the end of the story for you, Ed? OR do you have another option to obtain a United States Passport?

For the answer to these questions, Ed, watch this 27-MINUTE VIDEO;

A U.S. Passport 4 Ed

Click HERE for same Video with Spanish subtitles

Within this video, you will come face to face with the SECRET to FREEDOM hidden in plain sight in the passport application provided to Americans by the U.S. State Department.

After you have watched this video, read my eBook, From Sovereign to Serf, and I’ll see you in South America!

FROM SOVEREIGN TO SERF – The Book – by Roger S. Sayles

  246 pages of legal, historical and political intrigue with remedies and proof, From Sovereign to Serf is the most powerful book you will ever have the privilege to read. — Jeffrey Bennett, host of Life, Liberty & All That Jazz

America endured eight years of war and 25,000 casualties rather than submit God-given, Natural Rights to government control. Yet in the 150 years since the civil war, we have seen the United States Federal Government expand its scope of power and authority and our freedoms eroded almost exponentially with each change of the executive.

Today the US has the largest, most powerful government in the history of humankind – a government far more controlling, taxing and demanding than our founding generation abolished.

How did this happen? And what, if anything, can you do about it?

Read what Chief Justice Fuller of the U.S. Supreme Court had to say about the “spin” that was put on the 14th Amendment citizenship supposedly applicable to all Americans:

―The rule [of citizenship adopted by the majority] was the outcome of the connection in feudalism between the individual and the soil on which he lived, and the allegiance due was that of liegemen to their liege lord. It was not local and temporary, as was the obedience to the laws owed by aliens within the dominions of the Crown, but permanent and indissoluble, and not to be cancelled by any change of time or place or circumstances.

And it is this rule, pure and simple, which it is asserted determined citizenship of the United States during the entire period prior to the passage of the act of April 9, 1866, and the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment, and governed the meaning of the words “citizen of the United States” and “natural-born citizen” used in the Constitution as originally framed and adopted.

I submit that no such rule obtained during the period referred to, and that those words bore no such construction; that the act of April 9, 1866, expressed the contrary rule; that the Fourteenth Amendment prescribed the same rule as the act, and that, if that amendment bears the construction now put upon it, it imposed the English common law rule on this country for the first time, and made it “absolute and unbending” just as Great Britain was being relieved from its inconveniences.” – Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. at 707 (Fuller, C. J., dissenting) (describing the citizenship rule adopted by the majority)

See also:

It [a passport] is a document, which, from its nature and object, is addressed to foreign powers; purporting only to be a request, that the bearer of it may pass safely and freely; and is to be considered rather in the character of a political document, by which the bearer is recognized, in foreign countries, as an American citizen [sic]; and which, by usage and the law of nations, is received as evidence of the fact. But this is a very different light, from that in which it is to be viewed in a court of justice, where the inquiry is, as to the fact of citizenship. It is a mere ex parte certificate; and if founded upon any evidence produced to the secretary of state, establishing the fact of citizenship, that evidence, if of a character admissible in a court of justice, ought to be produced upon the trial, as higher and better evidence of the fact.

Urtetiqui v. D’Arcy, 34 U.S. 692, 699; 9 Pet. 692; 9 L.Ed. 276 (1835)

Posted by Roger Sayles in Articles, Passports, 10 comments